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Tuesday, December 11, 2012

social studies:chapter 3 review

Iron age and impact on civilizations-
  • Spread out nations.
  • Increased military capabilities
  • increased agricultural production.
Hittites-
  • anatolia 1700-1200 B.C.E
  • metal deposits=international trade (everyone wanted iron)
  • first to develop iron technology but kept it a secret so they can secretly destroy nations
  • used horse drawn chariots
(horse drawn) Chariot-
  • better for war
  • allowed for an invincible phalanx wall
  • decline of middle kingdom egypt- Decentralization of authority
Decline of middle kingdom egypt
  • hittites fall 1200 B.C.
  • egypt shrinks 1225 B.C
  • Mycenea falls 1150- B.C- unknown why
Hyksos
  • first foreign rule From egypt, (stepped into power vacuum)
  • they were discriminated against.
  • unknown how they came to power.
  • intermarried with egyptians and adopted their language.
  • were still considered outsiders.
  • reunification of egypt 1560 BC carried out of Thebes
Buffer zone- a neutral zone between nations that warned each nation it was being attacked.
Hatshepsut- First female ruler in Egypt. She ruled for the most out of any female ruler of that time. She ruled as a man. When she died, Everyone erased her from their history books. Reestablished Hykso trade routes.
Akhenaten- Beneficent of Aten. Originally named Amenhotep. He moved the capital. People got mad.Concerned with the spread of religion. Only important people were allowed to worship him. Monotheistic version of Ra. After he died, they moved the capital back to Thebes and reopened the old temples.
Ramses 2- Ruled in 1290- 1224 B.C. He returned to expansionism. He had
Returned to expansionism- spreading out, military conquests, had a lot of land
built Monuments
Lived into his 90s
married a hittite princess
Had Many wives and over 100 children
He was a good king in the books because we know him the most and he left statues behind, he spread out so more people know about you and can visit.
  • He Fought a major battle in Syria against the Hittites.
  • Made a trade route in Middle East-West. They knew trade would help them.
  • What was traded  ?
  • Spices, jewelry ,  blaa blaa blaaa
  • Cheaper to make something than buy it
  • Traded iron to make weapons
inland cities = overland caravans (camels)
coastal cities = access to mediterranean sea
Horses Vs. Camels.
  • New mode of transportation
  • Horses came to Egypt by 1600.
  • Horses are faster and better for messaging. Facilitated faster communication.larger empires-easier to manage and control, increased military response time. Horses are not good pack animals.
  • Camels are better for long distance trade because there is less upkeep work. Camels can hold a lot of mileage, but they are slow. Camels are easier to get and can carry more. cross desert trade routes
Story of the Minotaur -Minos(king) asked Poseidon (god of sea) to help him win the war, the g-d said if you sacrifice a white bull to me, then you will win. He liked the bull so much, he decided to keep it and sacrifice a normal bull. Poseidon spoke to the god of love and caused the bull to fall in love with Minos’s wife. They had relations, the minotaur was born. Minos put him in a Labyrinth and he got angry after a while, so, he escaped and killed Minos’s wife. Minos put him back in the Labyrinth. Theseus ends up getting caught on purposely and gets put in the labyrinth and kills the minotaur.
Minoans
minoan crete-. 2000 B.C
  • Named after Minos.
  • They had an unknown ethnicity and an undeciphered writing similar to cuneiform.
  • Cretan pottery found over Mediterranean and middle east  (lots of trade)migrated from Mesopotamia
  • no likeness of leaders( they didn't think it was the most important aspect from day to day life)
  • many paintings of women shown in passivity (women are less important, they were sexists to women)
  • many paintings of nature
  • beauty
  • natural order

Mycenaeans- Located at Mycenae in southern Greece. They wrote in Linear B, which is derived from Minoan Crete (came from upper class: kings and scribes.)
Knossus/Cnossus- Capital of Mycenae
Shaft Graves- Deep graves filled with bodies and riches (similar to Egyptian Pharaohs graves [ rich and important people were buried there]). Thick walls, more graves, complex indoor plumbing.
Linear B- Mycenaean language.
  • set of syllabic symbols  (similar to cuneiform)
Aegean Trade-
    • Aegean Exports
  • found as far away as the middle east
  • included wine, olive oil, slaves, weapons, mercenaries, etc.
    • Aegean imports:
  • Found as far away as northern Europe and Syria
  • included grain, metals (gold, copper + tin = bronze), amber
  • Traded with the strong, took from the weak
  • "The weak are meat, and the strong do eat" mentality
  • Aggressive attitude led to conflict with Hittites

Trojan War- Historical 'evidence' based largely on Homer's, The Iliad
  • Archaeological confirmation of the destruction of a city matching the description of Troy Circa 1200 B.C.E.
  • Agamemnon, Odysseus, Priam, Helen of Troy, Paris
Assyrians- From present day Iraq.
New kind of empire
  • First "real" empire (because it's size). it ruled over very diverse people
  • they ruled over multiple ethnicity(lots of land, lots of people to rule over)
  • very large(unprecedented size)
  • subjugation of periphery( subjugation-ruling people by putting them under you)( periphery -area surrounding the capital)
government structure
  • King as center
    • Earthly representative chosen by the gods (ashur)
    • choose own successor
    • Planned campaigns , field Commander
    • the king appointed officials
      • judge and jury
      • diplomat
      • Head Priest
      • everyone else were direct servants of the king
Mass Deportation- broke spirit of conquered people (put all members of families in different places)
Sappers- Dug tunnels under buildings to attack it without people seeing them to destroy the city
Administration-
  • tightly controlled close to home (capital)
  • "loose" far away
    • less concerned with actual governance in periphery(surrounding area), just the acquisition of capital
Terror Tactics-
  • harsh, public punishment.
  • Thrown into fires,
  • skinned alive in town square,
  • heads on sticks.










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