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Thursday, January 17, 2013

chemistry midterm review


Chemical Vs. Physical changes
breaking glass -pc
adding creamer to coffee-pc
soda goes “flat”-cc
shooting off fireworks-cc
bleaching your hair-cc
LED display glows -cc
grilling hamburgers-cc
milk goes sour-cc
candle wax melts-pc
snow disappears without melting-pc
gold is hammered flat to make foil-pc
zinc shatters when dropped on floor-pc
Classifying matter
water and oil-Het
a tank of CO2-C or Hom
Salt-C
mercury in thermometer-e
distilled water-c
pure gold jewelry-e
Copper Wire-e
sandy water-Het
human blood-hom/het
sugar-c
cola-het
States of Matter

VolumeShapecompressibility
SolidDefinitedefinitelittle to none
Liquid Definiteindefiniteslightly
gasindefiniteindefinitehighly compressible

Atomic Structure

  • nucleus determines mass #
  • electrons are found in cloud
  • neutrons are found in nucleus
  • protons are also found in nucleus
  • cloud is compressed of mostly empty space
  • proton is particle in an atom that has + charge
  • electron is particle in an atom that has - charge
  • neutron is particle in an atom that has no charge
  • ion is + or - charged atom
  • isotope describes atoms of the same element that differ in the number of neutrons
atom calculations
Isotopic SymbolNameatm #mass numbercharge#particles in nucleusprotonsneutronselectrons
50/24
Cr
chromium-502450050242624
41/19k+1Potassium-411941+141192218
24/11Na
2-
sodium-2411242-2411139

IsotopeAbundance
Si-2892.21%
Si-294.70%
Si-303.09%

28 X 0.9221 = 25.8188
29 X 0.047 = 1.363
30 X 0.0309 = 0.927
ans: 28.1088

energy levelsublevels in major energy levelnumber of orbitals per sublevelnumber of electrons per subleveltotal number of electrons that can fit in that energy level
4s1232
p36
d510
f714


orbital notation:
Neon 10
ii     ii    ii ii ii
1s       2s        2p         
electron configuration
aluminum 13
1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p1
Sc:1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 4s2 3d1
Noble gas config
Si:[Ne] 3s2 3p2
Sc:[Ar] 4s2 3d1

ionic and covalent naming and writing formulas:
Potassium Carbide: K4 C
Ca Se: Calcium selenide
Aluminum phosphide:Al P
CO2: carbon dioxide
NBr3: Nitrogen Tribromide
krypton dichloride
N4 O2
Types of bonding
  • covalent bond occurs between nonmetal and nonmetal
  • ionic bond forms between cation and anion
  • covalent bond is when electrons are shared between atoms
  • ionic bond forms between metal and nonmetal
  • ionic bond is when electrons are transferred from one atom to another
click on this link for more: 
https://docs.google.com/document/d/14_mGRdey_D9yj7J3cmW3ULV2qQ-1SvYuxwfXNTS59VQ/edit
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