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Saturday, January 17, 2015

Updated: American Government Review

This review is meant for both, AP and regular government. Most of the stuff we learned are in the books. I went into more detail than Mr. Govier’s review sheet. It is still a good idea to open the book and take a look for yourself, which is why I listed some page numbers.
·         Look at his review sheet. In this section, I cannot help you.
·         (For AP, there are 2 free response questions, we have to wait till the final to find out)
Chapter 1:
·         (Pg. 4) Voting trends
o   Younger people don't care about politics,
o   Senior citizens vote more often than people under 25
§  They are usually retired
o   Peak around 2000-1 (9/11 attacks)
o   Started caring more after economic crisis (around 2008)
·         (Pg. 9) Purpose of government
o   Collect taxes
§  To keep government running
o   Preserve order
§  Prevent riots
o   Socialize the young
§  Mandatory education
·         Daily pledge of allegiance
o   Provide public services
§  School
§  Library
§  Hospital
·         Medical care
o   Maintain national defense
§  Post-9/11 security
·         Politics
o   Select the government leader
o   Policymaking system
§  Government responds to priorities of its people
·         (pg. 13) Democracy
o   Definition: A system of selecting policymakers and of organizing government so that policy represents and responds to the public's preferences.
o   We are a democratic-republic, but we call ourselves a democracy
o   Democracy is looked at in a positive sense
§  Many people prefer it to another system (look at chart)
·         Majority rule
o   A fundamental principle of traditional democratic theory. In a democracy, choosing among alternatives requires that the majority's desire be respected.
o   American government protects minority, thus this law does not get free rein
·         Pluralism
o   a theory of American democracy emphasizing that the policymaking process is very open to the participation of all groups with shared interests, with no single group usually dominating. Pluralists tend to believe that as a result, public interest generally prevails
·         Hyper-pluralism
o   a theory of American Democracy contending that groups are so strong that government, which gives in to the many different groups, is thereby weakened
·         Elitism
o   a theory of American Democracy contending that an upper-class elite holds the power and makes policy, regardless of the formal governmental organization
§  Lobbyists, organizations
·         (Pg. 17) Healthy Democracy
o   Complex issues
o   Limited participation
o   Escalating campaign costs
o   Diverse political interests
·         Political culture
o   Liberty
§  Freedom of speech…
o   Egalitarianism
§  Everyone created equal
o   Individualism
§  You can get ahead on your own
o   Laissez-faire
§  No government regulation in businesses
o   Populism
§  Ordinary people first…
Chapter 2
·         (pg. 30) Texas v. Johnson
o   Johnson burned a U.S. flag
o   Got sued and lost initially
o   Flag protection Act created
§  Voted unconstitutional because 1st amendment
o   Johnson of the hook after won the appeal
·         (pg. 34) John Locke
o   Natural rights
§  Humans deserve life liberty, and property
·         In declaration of independence, got changed to life, liberty, and pursuit of happiness
·         Revolution
o   Disliked English rule
§  Because taxation without reason…
·         (pg. 37) Articles of Confederation failed
o   All states needed to approve of bill in order to fight a war
o   Weren’t good at collecting taxes
§  Shay’s rebellion
·         Farmers prevented judges from foreclosing
o   Now, we have stronger central government
·         (pg. 44) James Madison
o   Madisonian System = checks and balances
·         (pg. 47) Federalists vs. Anti-federalists
o   Federalists are pro-central government
§  Supported constitution
o   Anti-federalists are against it
§  Opposed constitution
o   With groups opposed and for the constitution, there were compromises made to appeal to both parties
·         (pg. 40) Connecticut compromise (members serving in gov’t)
o   Compromise between the New Jersey Plan and the Virginia plan
§  New Jersey plan = based on population
·         More people lived in new jersey = it goes to their benefit
·         It is terrible for a state with small population like Rhode island
§  Virginia plan = equal representation (of all states)
·         Better for smaller states,  population-wise
o   There ended up being both (congress)
§  ouse of representativesHouse of representatives
·         based on population
§  Senate
·         2 representatives per state (equal)

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