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Monday, January 19, 2015

Sugyot Final

This is the final review for R. Lowy's sugyot.

Basically, he gave us multiple packets. We were asked to look them over and be able to write a few essays on the exam. You can find the packets on thinkwave as an assignment

Here are my notes:

True vs. Truth
  • true = adjective
    • objective
  • truth = noun
    • somewhat subjective
Relative truth
  • Per person, it’s different
We can prove it
  •       Picture evidence
    • Ex: Hostage situation
      •   Take a newspaper of that date and make the hostage hold it with video
  •         Have multiple witnesses
    •   2 in jewish court
  •    True to someone else
Next set of notes:

Avi Parshan: Vehavta LeReicha Kemocha
1 or two sentence answers to several issues
  1. Halachic Definition of Love:
    1. Long term commitment to someone else's fulfillment.
      • Opposite of love is indifference
        • Love is not something you fall into, it's something you build.
          1. You can not fall out of it either.
            1. Veehavta (Aseh Tov/go out and do good) (make an effort)
              1. And you will love
            2. LeReicha
              1. Your fellow Jew
                1. Shouldn't you love people from all nations
                2. Be a role model for other people not jewish
            3. Komocha
              1. Like yourself
                1. As you love yourself
            4. Why does it start with a vav
Gemara: two people walking along the way. In ones hand is a container of water.
  • Share and both die?
    • Both die, rather than murder your friend, or yourself
    • Can't say we are depending on a miracle
  • Do you Keep water for yourself?
    • Survival of the fittest
  • Do you give your friend the water, and you die?
    • Double edged sword
    • Guilt of surviving when others die
The gemara said it's better for both of them to drink it, so they don't see them die
  • Rabbi Akiva said vchai a chichi imach
    • You will live and your brother would live
      • Who's got the water? If you have the water, you are not permitted to give it to someone else
      • He also said vehavta loraicha kemocha

Gemara Shabat: what you don't like, don't do to your friend
  • Sur Merah- Don't do evil
    • What do you do first? Don't do evil, or go out and do good
  • Apologize for doing something wrong (if Adam ve chaveiro)
  • Regret what you did
  • Accept upon your self that you are gonna change
  • Talk to g-d

Going on:
We were trained to believe that murder is morally incorrect
  • is impartial, fair
  • 3rd person observation
  • someone outside the process
  • is bias
unproven doesn’t mean not true
  • example big bang
    • scientists have reasonable evidence
      • NASA picked up vibrations from big bang I
Stealing is bad, you are harming yourself

Truth and Lies in the Jewish Tradition: each bullet is a paragraph
  1. we are supposed to be honest
  2. truth is the seal of g-d
  3. keep your promises
    • even in your heart
  4. the bid for the item during davening
    • jews should be honest in business affairs
  5. shop owners shouldn’t be dishonest
    • don’t make items appear heavier to charge more money
  6. deceiving others is forbidden
    • don’t overcharge
  7. Story about Falsehood
  8. Don’t make a promise and fail to carry it out
  9. Don’t mislead your neighbors
  10. Don’t mislead your neighbors for future benefits
  11. You can tell a lie to promote peace and harmony
  12. A modest scholar can lie about how many sections they learned of gemara
    • Also intimate questions and marital life questions
  13. Tosafot adds: they can lie if they were drunk on purim.

Next set:

Sugyot: Truth and Lies by Avi Parshan
  1. Truth is relative
    1. based on society
  2. It  is dependent on the individual
    1. Each of us look at it from a different perspective
  3. By nature, human cannot define morality
    1. Each of us have different definitions of it
      1. Dependent on your background
        • socioeconomic
  4. Objectivity requires distance
    1. You need to be unrelated and unbiased
  5. Therefore : Morality and truth can only be defined by an outside source or power
    1. G-d is the outside power
      1. He sets the standard for morality
    2. The Torah is the outside source  

don’t steal, stay away from lying
don’t lie in court
keep far from false matters
  • avoid lying (keep away from it)
First Case:Rabbi Ille....
  • Hashem directed Samuel to lie
    • You are allowed to lie for the purpose of peace : shalom bayit
      • Ex: aaron with the going to other people and tell them to apologize  
      • you have to try to avoid it
Second Case:
  • It is a mitzvah to lie for peace

Third text
  • Tractate: A rabbi is allowed to lie about the quantity of gemara he learned
  • Bed: A rabbi is allowed to lie about his sexual relations for the sake of modesty
    • Tosafot disagrees because someone usually won’t ask about that
      • He says about emissions
  • Hospitality: One is allowed to lie about the hospitality of others (for good)
    • praise person appropriately, but don’t overdo it
Fourth Case

  • Protect yourself from financial harm
    • at the time, people used to collect a lot of money from the jews
    • are you allowed to misrepresent what you have?
      • Not moral
    • Are you allowed to lie to scoundrels?
      • To save yourself from losing money
Next set:
Go through psukkim and look for themes about emet
  1. Shemot caf gimel pasuk zain:
    1. Distance yourself from a false matter; and do not kill a truly innocent person or one who has been declared innocent, for I will not vindicate a guilty person.
      1. distance yourself: it doesn’t say don’t do it
        1. there are certain situations that you are allowed to lie in
          1. provide example
      2. Do not kill a pure person
        1. pure vs. righteous
          1. Pure = completely without sin
          2. Righteous =  
            1. Rambam says someone who’s mitzvot are greater than their aveirot
              1. we don’t know how to measure the value of mitzvot and aveirot (except these 2)
                1. honoring parents = long life
                2. freeing the mother bird = long life
      3. I will not justify a guilty person
        1. when someone dies, we say baruch dayan emet
          1. G-d is a true judge
      4. distance yourself from liars, do not kill innocent people
  2. Shemot caf gimel pasuk chet:
    1. You shall not accept a bribe, for a bribe will blind the clear sighted and corrupt words that are right.
      1. do not take a bribe, it does not say do not give a bribe though
      2. do not take a bribe because it blinds the eyes of Tzadikim
        1. if it binds a tzadik, it does so much worse to a regular person
What is the problem with taking bribes
Sometimes you need to let others test themselves
  1. Vayikra yud tet psuk yud alef: You shall not steal. You shall not deny falsely. You shall not lie, one man to his fellow.
    1. don’t steal, don’t lie
    2. don’t lie, one person to his nation
      1. don’t commit treason
      2. what about other nations
      3. איש = good person (in torah)
        1. dealing with leadership
          1. how should a person act towards to his community
          2. do not do evil to your nation
            1. we are a small group of people
              1. If we don’t take care of ourselves,we are in trouble
  2. Yud bet: You shall not swear falsely by My Name, thereby profaning the Name of your God. I am the Lord.
    1. don’t swear using g-d’s name
      1. it will disrespect his name
        1. if you throw a paper with g-d’s name on it, it lowers the playing field
          1. it makes it seem if we are on the same level as g-d
    2. This pasuk is talking about chilul hashem
      1. on a totally different level
  3. Zechariah:These are the things that you shall do: Speak the truth each one with his neighbor; truth, and judgment of peace you shall judge in your cities.
    1. speak truth and judge in your cities
    2. truth doesn’t always rule
        1. compromise is sometimes the answer
  4. Tzfanya: The remnant of Israel shall neither commit injustice nor speak lies; neither shall deceitful speech be found in their mouth, for they shall graze and lie down, with no one to cause them to shudder.
    1. You can’t make injustice and you can’t lie
      1. Why?
        1. So you can sleep at night
          1. so you won’t lie
            1. you won’t have to cover it
              1. You won’t get nervous
  5. Both Tehilim: who will live in tent, Tehilim: those that are righteous and speak truth
    1. If you are good, this will happen
    2. Truth in your heart
      1. try to control your urges
  6. Avot: the world stands on these three important things
    1. judgement/ justice,truth,peace
      1. justice + truth = peace
        1. justice is compromised
          1. take everything into consideration
            1. the problem is taking too much into consideration
    2. A stool stands on three legs
      1. support
  7. Shabat:
  8. Shavuot: Why as a judge, do you have to look for false witnesses
  • Rich guy vs. Poor guy in court
  • Rich guy has to dress like poor guy or give poor guy nice clothing
    • Appearances matter
  • Nice clothing matters in court  

  • How do we know that one side should not fix his words
    • In jewish court, we don't listen to the litigants
      • We only listen to the witnesses
11. What is the seal of Hashem
  • Emet <truth>
    • The Hebrew language begins with aleph, middle mem, last tet
      • Without hashem, there is no truth
12. Donkey and the jewel
  • Bought donkey
    • Expensive Jewel in saddle
        • Jew returns it
          • The yishmaeli blessed him
            • Some say that uncelitz converted to Judaism because of this

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